Our Goal

The Philoscientists are dedicated to bringing you original ideas and content related to the hard and social sciences. We are dedicated to bringing you food for though ranging from psychology and sociology to physics and chemistry while trying to tie it all together and look for meaning in it all.

Thursday, January 8, 2015

One World

If you think about it, all anything is, is an object in space, surrounded by gasses made up of many simple elements. At a glance, it seems obvious what is solid and what is gas, and it is natural to see the cutoff between a solid object and the air surrounding it. From an objective viewpoint, this idea can be viewed with 'A' and 'B' variables in a plane of sight. 'A' corresponds to the solid object, while 'B' represents the air surrounding it. As gas particles come into contact with the solid materials that make-up an object, they bounce off and repel in directions away from their original path, and assuming an insignificant amount of gas effuses into the solid, the 'A' and 'B' variables stay independent of each other. This then raises the question, “What then fills the void in which the 'A' and 'B' variables meet?” If somehow we were to turn the world off and peel back the layer of gas molecules, would there then be a black hole due to the vacuum caused by the lack of matter that causes the space to collapse in on itself? If this were true, everything in the world would be living in separate worlds of everything else, with dx-thick black holes surrounding them all. Could it be that we all live in worlds independent from everything else in a galaxies too small to notice?

Chaos in Economics: Part 1

To kick off the start of Philoscientists, we the writers have decided to do a series on Chaos theory in the Social Sciences and try to make the claim to disprove neoclassical economics. Full parenthetical citations are included, so I will include the references on this first post that can be referenced for the rest of the Chaos in Economics Series. ALL work is original and all research has been verified as credible. Enjoy!

We live in a universe full of interacting dynamic systems where any particle has the ability to effect any other particle in existence.  These ideas come from some of the most basic tenants of Chaos Theory.  Human nature makes us want to figure out how all of these systems work, and through economics it becomes possible.  In today’s society , Chaos Theory is not taken into account nearly enough, and while many things in our world are modelable, large, long term economic models are relatively inaccurate for this reason.  Neoclassical economics should not be a lost field of study simply because it is not as reliable as we once thought, but instead we should try and take steps to include Chaos Theory principles and  it’s implementation.
Humans have long been operating within the field economics in regards to what we know about the economy and trends that apply to it.  In fact, neoclassical graphs and theories are utilized by the Federal Reserve and the United States Congress consistently for taking action to stabilize the economy during recessions, as well as to maintain sustainable growth during growth periods.  From the 1900’s and until the beginning of  the development of Chaos / Complexity theories, neoclassical economics was routinely modeled in a very linear universe, where few factors besides exchange of currency were evaluated.   Although Chaos theory is difficult to define it fundamentally incorporates observations and theorems that attempt to explain the chaotic nature of existence.  
A stylized Lorenz Attractor (discussed in later post)

Kurt Godel, a mathematician is seen as one of the great founders of Chaos Theory (Gleick, 1987).  In Godel’s day, the mathematical community was pushing to theoremize, or define all the rules, of mathematics so that there could be something of a mathematics bible that could be referenced to solve any problem in existence (Jones, 2014).  Mathematicians believed that if their field could be completely explained, all of existence down to the atom could be theorized in every scientific field.  Godel saw that this was completely wrong, and realized that we would never be able to find every rule, so after working several problems to prove his point, he published his Incompleteness Theorem.  It states that there are infinitely many theorems in existence, meaning that no matter how many we discover, we will never be any closer to putting all of mathematics into a book or even collection of books (Jones, 2014).  Other major pillars of Chaos Theory include sensitivity to initial conditions, commonly known as the “butterfly effect” and the idea that nothing is static and everything is constantly changing (Gleick, 1987).  A key feature of Chaos theory is that it has been theoremized to a certain extent, meaning that through an academic and scientific lens, essential  components of the theory have to be accepted as fact, and the way that chaos impacts all systems must be taken into account (Gleick, 1987).


Bertuglia, Cristoforo Sergio., and Franco Vaio.  Nonlinearity, Chaos, and Complexity: The Dynamics of Natural and Social Systems.  Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.  Print.

Cassidy, David.  "Quantum Mechanics, 1925-1927: The Uncertainty Principle." The American Institute of Physics.  American Institute of Physics, n.d.  Web.  07 Dec.  2014.

Gao, Mingming, Jingchang Nan, and Surina Wang.  "A Novel Power Amplifier Behavior Modeling Based on RBF Neural Network with Chaos Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm." Journal of Computers 9.5 (2014): 1138-143.  Applied Science & Technology Source.  Web.  21 Oct.  2014.  

Gleick, James.  Chaos: Making a New Science.  New York, NY, U.S.A.: Viking, 1987.  Print.

Jones, Judy.  "Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem." N.p., 14 Jan.  2014.  Web.  8 Dec.  2014.

Oxley, Les, and Donald A.r.  George.  "Economics on the Edge of Chaos: Some Pitfalls of Linearizing Complex Systems." Environmental Modelling & Software 22.5 (2007): 580-89.  Web.  20 Oct.  2014.

Sohrabi, Sahar and Nikkhahan, Bahman.  "Chaos in a Model of Electronic Market." Journal of Convergence Information Technology 6.12 (2011): 171-76.  Ebscohost.  Web.  21 Oct.  2014.

Sorin, Vlad.  "Chaos Models in Economics." Annals of the University of Oradea 17.2 (2008): 959-64.  Economic Science Series.  Web.  20 Oct.  2014.

Wednesday, January 7, 2015


Agency is a critical component of sociology that impacts most systems. The basic principle is that an agent is something that can make decisions and act upon those decisions. The most basic example would be us humans. We all believe we have free will and based on that we make decisions that can effect our surroundings.

A sociological tree exploring an agents actions, mentalities, and effects
The idea of agency can be applied not only to individuals, but any group of individuals from a relationship or partnership all the way to the Federal Government. It becomes interesting at this point because there are now agents within an agency that can effect change and influence the path of the agency itself. Without the idea of agency, many of the basic principles of sociology would be difficult to study and we might not have some of the great interdisciplinary ideas like Chaos and Complexity Theories. Agency is an incredibly fascinating topic that can be applied on micro and macro levels and while the idea might not blend well with the more scientific belief that we in fact do not have free will, it can help us understand why the world works the way it does.